Across the street in this photo is the Largo di Torre Argentina. This is an old Roman square that contains four Republican Roman temples and the remains of the Theater of Pompey.
It is upon these steps that Julius Caesar was murdered.
Caesar played a crucial role in transforming the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. He entered into alliances with Crassus and Pompey and amassed power through populist appeal, though it was oppossed by the Roman Senate elite.
After gaining control, he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government, centralized power and became known as "dictator in perpetuity". A group of senators led by Brutus assassinated Caesar on 15 March 44 BC (the Ides of March) hoping to restore constitutional goverment in the Republic.
However, this led to civil war instead, which ultimately led to the establishment of a permanent Roman Empire by Caesar's successor, Octavius - later known as Augustus.
As you can see, many of the paintings are still visible to this day.